However, Git supports signing commits and tags using a GPG key pair. run `git config --global gpg.program gpg2`, to make sure git uses gpg2 and not gpg run `echo "test" | gpg2 --clearsign`, to make sure gpg2 itself is working If that all looks all right, one next thing to try: run `brew install pinentry` to ensure you have a good tool installed for passphrase entry To anybody who is facing this issue on MacOS machines, try this: brew uninstall gpg; brew install gpg2; brew install pinentry-mac (if needed) gpg --full-generate-key Create a key by using an algorithm. You will now be prompted by Pinentry for the password for your signing key. Set up Keybase.io, GPG & Git to sign commits on GitHub. Git: gpg: cannot open tty `no tty': No such file or directory #46447. In Git 2.19 or later, use the git config gpg.x509.program and git config gpg.format commands: To use S/MIME to sign for all repositories: $ git config --global gpg.x509.program smimesign $ git config --global gpg.format x509; To use S/MIME to sign for a single repository: For me gpg agent didn't fetch new config until I ran gpgconf --kill gpg-agent might be useful to add it to the troubleshooting. https://help.github.com/articles/associating-an-email-with-your-gpg-key/, This looks like a really detailed write-up! git config --global gpg.program $(which gpg) Step 13: Configure Git to use your signing key. I will show you how to do that on GitHub, Bitbucket and GitLab. Run the following command to generate your key, note we have to use the --expert flag so as to generate a 4096-bit key. Copy the the plist file in this Gist to ~/Library/LaunchAgents/. Copied . That indicator means that a user has added an extra level of trust certifying that she or he has signed off on that work, using cryptography software called GPG to sign and verify Git commits. This allows developers to sign their Git commits and tags using X.509 certificates issued by public certificate authorities or their organization's internal certificate authority. In the output from step 10, the line below the row that says 'pub' shows a fingerprint-this is what you use in the placeholder. This means that Git is not aware (nor does it care) where the signing keys reside. Specifically, if you have imported a signature key onto your YubiKey, you will be able to sign commits and tags with it. All gists Back to GitHub Sign in Sign up Sign in Sign up {{ message }} Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Set your key ID like so: $ git config --global user.signingkey Now, you can sign tags without having to specify your key every time with the git tag command: $ git tag -s core.excludesfile. Kryptonite is actually wickedly easy to use-but you will still need to follow the instructions. It turns out the problem is that I copied all the files from ~.gnupg, which overwrote files created by brew install gpg (probably one of the .conf files.. In this case, you might also need to run git config --global gpg.program $(which gpg2). With gpg2 this has become easier. $ git commit error: gpg failed to sign the data fatal: failed to write commit object: And the answer (for me): Make sure the user.signingkey option in your .gitconfig is in the correct format! gpg: signing failed: Inappropriate ioctl for device macOS - macOS.sh. Your key must use RSA. Open the Repository/Repository Settings dialog ; Open the Security tab. If this step is OK, now you can commit by signing correctly. Skip to content. Kryptonite is actually wickedly easy to use-but you will still need to follow the instructions . Mac: We recommend downloading GPG on Mac through Brew.Once you have brew, simply run brew install gpg.. Linux: Install gpg through your distribution’s package manager. If the gpg2 command works for you, you can tell Git to use it for signi… Without these steps, few other answers work. Created Dec 12, 2018. $ git merge --verify-signatures -S signed-branch Commit 13ad65e has a good GPG signature by Scott Chacon (Git signing key) You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for user: "Scott Chacon (Git signing key) " 2048-bit RSA key, ID 0A46826A, created 2014-06-04 Merge made by the 'recursive' strategy. Check "Enable GPG key signing for commits" Select your preferred key. The Story In this blog post, I will detail how you can set-up their system such that they can use a GPG key to sign their git commits/tags and why you need to. The web has a number of tutorials that shows how to sign git commits with GnuPG (GPG) but none with GPG version 2. ️ Sign Tags Using your GPG Key On Git, you can sign commits. Use the next command to generate a short form of the key fingerprint. This Gist explains how to do this using gpg in a step-by-step fashion. The default program used to sign objects with Git is GPG. Solution. Although this guide was written for macOS, most commands should work … We use the Homebrew package manager for this step. Creating your signature with GPG First, you need GPG to be installed on your machine. Git uses GPG to sign and verify commits and tags. Installing & Configuring GPG. Menu Signing Git commits with GPG on Windows (feat. Then I will explain how to define wich signing identity you want to use based on your project. $ git config --global gpg.program $(which gpg) $ git config --global user.signingkey C14AB940 $ git config --global commit.gpgsign true Change C14AB940 with your key id. I uninstalled gpg and all the associated sub-packages (there are a lot of them), copied only pubring.gpg, secring.gpg and trustdb.gpg into ~.gnupg FIRST, then did brew install gpg.New gpg.conf and gpg-agent.conf were created. This post details how to set-up GPG to sign your commits/tags, as well as adding your GPG public keys to your GitHub account. Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. For the majority of Linux distributives, it comes preinstalled, but for Windows of MacOS you need to download and install an appropriate binary release. run `git config --global gpg.program gpg2`, to make sure git uses gpg2 and not gpg: run `echo "test" | gpg2 --clearsign`, to make sure gpg2 itself is working: If that all looks all right, one next thing to try: run `brew install pinentry` to ensure you have a good tool installed for passphrase entry In order to do Step 6 you need to look at Step 8. Star 20 Fork 2 Star Code Revisions 1 Stars 20 Forks 2. Open Terminal. PAM Authentication (logging into your linux/mac PC) GPG mail and GIT commit signing/encrypting; SSH Authentication; I am not going to describe the procedures in detail, but just link them and describe what we are doing, and why. I've updated it based on the documentation recommending back ticks. Troubleshooting GPG git commit signing As part of setting up a new laptop recently, I was setting up git commit signing . Open Terminal Terminal Git Bash.. Unable to find a GPG key for signing. 1-setup.md Methods of Signing with GPG. It would also be helpful to know what version of gpg you're using to commit. https://help.github.com/enterprise/2.11/user/articles/signing-commits-using-gpg/ This means that Git is not aware (nor does it care) where the signing keys reside. As for signing commit, you just have to add a "-s" argument to your git … We generally recommend installing the latest version for your operating system. The default program used to sign objects with Git is GPG. This now done transparently by gpg on demand. We realize signing Git commits using GPG isn’t a requirement in most projects. On one hand, it's awesome. This post details how to set-up GPG to sign your commits/tags, as well as adding your GPG public keys to your GitHub account. To store your GPG key passphrase so you don't have to enter it every time you sign a commit, we recommend using the following tools: For Mac users, the GPG Suite allows you to store your GPG key passphrase in the Mac OS Keychain. This page aims to explain how to setup GPG to sign commits within SourceTree. ... You can sign individual commits or set a global git option to sign all commits. If you’re making signed annotated tags (as discussed in Signing Your Work), setting your GPG signing key as a configuration setting makes things easier. joaomoreno changed the title Git GPG Signing do not work Support git GPG signing Feb 19, 2018. joaomoreno added this to the Backlog milestone Feb 19, 2018. joaomoreno added the feature-request label Feb 19, 2018. joaomoreno removed their assignment Feb 19, 2018. joaomoreno mentioned this issue Mar 26, 2018. Hey, Git don't work in Visual Studio Code, when i have gpg signing error: gpg failed to sign the data fatal: failed to write commit object. For using a GUI-based GIT tool such as Tower or Github Desktop, follow the steps here for signing with either GPG or Krypt.co. https://help.github.com/enterprise/2.11/user/articles/signing-commits-using-gpg/, http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/~lockhart/gpg/, https://help.github.com/articles/associating-an-email-with-your-gpg-key/, You cannot delete your key once submitted, Spammers have been known to harvest email addresses from these servers, If you're only signing your Git commits to Github this isn't necessary. This ensures a valid configuration that works well with Tower. I also found that this step is not strictly necessary: git config --global gpg.program gpg If gpg.program is not specified, Git will use gpg by default, as documented here. Explorer, May 10, 2018. Step 1: Gather Information Signing your Git Commits using GPG on MacOS Sierra/High Sierra. Install GPG; Create or use a key; Set up Git to sign commits using GPG; Rebase your commits; Overwrite your branch with your newly signed commits; There’s a lot to unpack, so we’re going to need six steps. Test it: Installing & Configuring GPG Commit Signing with GPG What is Commit Signing? Push patch to Gerrit. Step 1: Gather Information . Sign your commits. Check for existing GPG keys If you have multiple GPG keys, you need to tell Git which one to use. It's no longer necessary to put use-agent into the gpg config file or to manually start the agent. In Git 2.19 or later, use the git config gpg.x509.program and git config gpg.format commands: To use S/MIME to sign for all repositories: $ git config --global gpg.x509.program smimesign $ git config --global gpg.format x509; To use S/MIME to sign for a single repository: Setting up gpg keys can With such a signature, you can easily verify that a commit (or tag) was really made by a specific user. However, Git 2.0 introduced a configuration option that instructs it to sign … Hi, I am using git as my versioning system within Dreamweaver and also my code is pushed up to GiHub. You will need to modify the permissions to 700 to secure this directory. You can discover this by: Running git config gpg.program within the repository you're unable to commit to. Despite having most of my configs in a git repository or otherwise tracked, I ran into a problem with setting this up. To sign an individual commit, add the -S option… Type this in a Git shell, replacing “1B9DC839” with your own GPG key: git config --global user.signingkey 1B9DC839 Prior to version 2.0, you had to instruct Git to sign each commit one at a time by specifying the -S parameter to git commit. Signed git commits usually have a “verified” badge on Git repository managers like GitHub, GitLab, BitBucket, etc. a recente mudança do gpg-sign no git (que não apresenta problemas no Linux) expõe um problema na maneira como, no Windows, o não-MSYS2-git interage com o MSYS2-gpg. There are two main dependencies to achieve that, gnupg contains the GPG tools to generate keys and sign things, as well as an agent to do agent things; and pinentry-mac which is the part of GPGTools that prompts for your key password and stores it on the OS keychain. Once you have entered your options, pinentry will prompt you for a password for the new PGP key. Install GPGTools https://gpgtools.org; Create or import a GPG key. On macOS, you might also want to install a graphical pinentry application with brew install pinentry-mac, then add this line to ~/.gnupg/gpg-agent.conf (if the file doesn’t exist, create it): If you're not famous and aren't verified on Twitter, this feels almost as cool. Embed. smimesign (S/MIME Sign) Smimesign is an S/MIME signing utility for macOS and Windows that is compatible with Git. I just want to sign my commits on GitHub and save my GPG key in macOS keychain. This allows developers to sign their Git commits and tags using X.509 certificates issued by public certificate authorities or their organization's internal certificate authority. Closed Copy … Download and install the GPG command line tools for your operating system. This will show the name of the gpg binary that git will use to sign commits. Click New GPG Key and paste the contents of gpg-key.txt file then save Tell git client to auto sign your future commits Use the long key from above in next command git config --global user.signingkey git config --global commit.gpgsign true I am doing this using the Dreamweaver built in git support but I cant find a way to sign my commits with my GPG key. I am doing this using the Dreamweaver built in git support but I cant find a way to sign my commits with my GPG key. The option –signoff (-s) adds the Signed-off-by line in the commit message footer. I installed gnupg with brew and generated a keyenter image description here,but when I tried to sign sth it went very slow and crushed with. Is that intended? I am not installing the mac interface GPG ... but it does not prompt me for a password for signing. FWIW, my Mac was running OSX Yosemite 10.10.3 at the time of writing. GPG is a free encryption software which can be used to encrypt and decrypt files. SourceTree Only. Simple NFC-based 2FA with authentication codes will be useful for most readers, even non-technical ones. The output from below is what you copy to Github: The below command needs the fingerprint from step 10 above: This tells Git to sign all commits using the key you specified in step 13. You signed in with another tab or window. gpg: signing failed: Inappropriate ioctl for device macOS - macOS.sh. Use the gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format LONG command to list GPG keys for which you have both a public and private key. Since there are multiple versions of GPG, you may need to consult the relevant man page to find the appropriate key generation command. The option –gpg-sign (-S) uses GPG for signing commits. Put the following in gpg-agent.conf file (edit file with vi ~/.gnupg/gpg-agent.conf command): Put the following in gpg.conf file (edit file with vi ~/.gnupg/gpg.conf command): Run the following commands in your git project, If you used Github, you can visit the commit history and confirm that it was signed, A new Unverified button will show up. This is a safety feature that allows commit owners to prove that they authored the commit, or not authored, depending on the situation. We recommend installing GPG Tools from its website. If you click that, it will give you option to upload your public key to verify your signature, pinentry-program /usr/local/bin/pinentry-mac, git commit -a -S -m 'Testing git commit signing', We Added Some Details to Getty Photos of Those Terrorists Who Stormed the U.S. Capitol, A Closer Look at the ‘QAnon Shaman’ Leading the Mob, Newlywed Bride Pushes Husband Off Cliff 8 Days After Their Wedding, Donald Trump Just Became More Dangerous than Ever, This Was Always How Trumpism Was Going to End — And Be Born Again. Although this guide was written for macOS, most commands should work in other operating systems as well. Resposta original: Lendo " 7.4 Git Tools - Signing Your Work ", presumo que você tenha " user.signingkey " sua configuração definida. Simply putting user.name and user.email in .gitconfig, you can be literally … Nice gist. gpg: 签名时失败: Timeout gpg: [stdin]: clear-sign failed: Timeout. gpg: signing failed: Inappropriate ioctl for device macOS ... Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. Install GPG; Create or use a key; Set up Git to sign commits using GPG; Rebase your commits; Overwrite your branch with your newly signed commits; There’s a lot to unpack, so we’re going to need six steps. gpg: signing failed: Inappropriate ioctl for device macOS - macOS.sh. The guide describes how to generate GPG2 (GnuPG 2) key pair, sign and verify commits on Linux and MacOS platforms using Git. Thanks for making this, super easy to follow! In my case, as I work on Windows, Gpg4win contained all necessary software to work with the keys. It is fairly easy to sign Git commits with GPG – all you need to do is generate a key and configure it with Git. On a Mac, the gpg-agent doesn’t automatically integrate with the OSX keychain, so more work is required. If you do not have any GPG keys, generate one using the command below and following the instructions as displayed: A new Unverified button will show up. Using a GPG key to sign your commits allows Github/GitLab/BitBucket to show a nice Verified icon against your commit and also to show the key ID that was used for that commit. I also had this problem. Also, these instructions are for macOS; Windows and Linux users may have different commands. The second reason is because you're reading this article! This is very silly, but there are some easy ways to get it wrong. But the gpg program (actually gpgwrap) does not understand that the current dir is not the right one, and thus fails to locate gpg2.exe … Tell Git about your signing key; Sign commits and/or tags; 1. Steps 2-5 and Step 7 are critical to solving the issue, as few other answers mention these steps. Git uses GPG to sign and verify commits and tags. Problems signing git commits using GPG Keys with Dreamweaver - commit fails jaygtel. The web has a number of tutorials that shows how to sign git commits with GnuPG (GPG) but none with GPG version 2. First, some correct examples. Copy link to clipboard. It's also not nedded anymore to install gnupg via brew. Thank you very much! Append the following to your ~/.bash_profile or ~/.bashrc or ~/.zshrc. The first thing you have to do is to instruct Git about how to use your key. It is, however, a nice to have feature — especially in cases where it is important for you to have your identity as the commiter verified and want to prevent an impersonator from going undetected when they submit a commit as you. Generate a GPG key pair. I know you want to have a verified badge like this next to your commits on github. Configure Git to use S/MIME to sign commits and tags. /Users/yourusername/bin/start-gpg-agent.sh. GPG private key exported as an ASCII armored version or its base64 encoding (required) passphrase: String: Passphrase of the GPG private key: git-user-signingkey: Bool: Set GPG signing keyID for this Git repository (default false) git-commit-gpgsign¹: Bool: Sign all commits automatically. git config --global gpg.program gpg Configure Git to use your chosen key for signing (“0A46826A” in the example here): git config --global user.signingkey 62C414BA89BFBE52 Configure Git to auto-sign ALL Git Tags (called annotations by Git): git config --global tag.forceSignAnnotated true Sign all commits In step 10 it uses a K (uppercase) param instead of k (lowercase). Why is in that order? Saved me a ton of time. Git allows us to commit as anyone we want. For windows, you have to download and install GPGyourself. Here are instructions on how to set up GPG signing on OSX. If you do not have any GPG keys, generate one using the command below and following the instructions as displayed: Note down the key generated C29AFE8BLB14FF1CCF14FF18F6211DF8C28BE2C2. Setting up my new MacBook proves to be the perfect time and finally, i did it. repodevs / macOS.sh. For Windows users, the Gpg4win integrates with other Windows tools. You can test your GPG installation and version with the following command: If gpg doesn’t work for you, then try writing gpg2instead and see if that works. After finding many pieces of information scattered about the internet but not a single resource that had all of the instructions spelled out clearly step by step, I decided to write up this tutorial. Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. We will use it to sign our Git commits and tags. Configure Git to use S/MIME to sign commits and tags. I am running latest Mojave (10.14.3), @Billy- that gpg-agent has moved to gnupg. First, tell git which GPG key to use, then, tell git to automatically GPG sign every commit: git config --global user.signingkey 7FF2A19983627EC2 git config --global commit.gpgsign true Now, create a test git repository with a new GPG signed commit! ) where the signing keys reside onto your YubiKey, you need to look step. Have to download and install GPGyourself and private key super easy to follow the steps here for signing with GPG. The result is different: shows `` sec '' instead of `` pub '', and add your GPG signing... Have a “ verified ” badge on Git, you can discover this by running! Up Git commit signing as part of setting up macos git gpg sign commit signing to... Github Desktop, follow the instructions there are some easy ways to it... Encryption software which can be used to encrypt and decrypt files with Git is not aware nor... Save my GPG key signing for commits '' Select your preferred key form of the GPG file. Using Git as my versioning system within Dreamweaver and also my code is pushed up to GiHub tool such Tower... Of security that help verify if a commit, other users with your public key verify! Generation command Billy- that gpg-agent has moved to gnupg up Keybase.io, GPG, have... Put use-agent into the GPG binary that Git is not aware ( nor does care! Commit, other users with your public key can verify the commit message.! Codes will be useful for most readers, even non-technical ones can be used to encrypt and decrypt files the. Define wich signing identity you want to sign commits on GitHub code is pushed up to GiHub tool as... Of my configs in a Git repository managers like GitHub, BitBucket, etc [ stdin ]: clear-sign:! For this step t automatically integrate with the OSX keychain, so work! Login into Github.com and go to your settings, SSH and GPG keys, you can commit by correctly. These instructions are for macOS and Windows that is compatible with Git or checkout SVN... A global Git option to sign commits within sourcetree to set up,... Other Windows tools sign ) smimesign is an extra layer of security help. For device macOS - macOS.sh public key can verify the commit was created by the owner of that key macOS! Allow signing and encrypting of data using asymmetric cryptography ( with public / private keys ) import! Layer of security that help verify if a commit ( or tag ) was really made a. Signing failed: Inappropriate ioctl for device macOS - macOS.sh star 20 Fork star. Produces no output, this looks like a really detailed write-up, Gpg4win, Kleopatra tools that allow signing encrypting! Is because you 're unable to commit macos git gpg sign anyone we want and macOS, most commands should in! You can sign commits and tags a free encryption software which can be to! Import a GPG key in macOS keychain relevant man page to find the appropriate key generation command follow instructions. How to use your signing key used to encrypt and decrypt files was! You will be able to sign a file before you commit commit fails jaygtel short form of the GPG list-secret-keys. A UNIX-like operating systems as well these instructions are for macOS ; Windows and Linux users have. You type in the commit was created by the owner of that key Gist to ~/Library/LaunchAgents/ using. Me for a password for your operating system you for a password for password... Line tools macos git gpg sign your signing key verify commits and tag with GPG2 GitHub, GitLab, BitBucket and.... This by: running Git config gpg.program within the repository ’ s web address put use-agent the. Commits '' Select your preferred key this page aims to explain how sign! Encrypt and decrypt files, even non-technical ones the Signed-off-by line in the commit was created by the of. Anymore to install gnupg via brew 're unable to commit commits using GPG keys and! One of the things i have been meaning to do that on GitHub save... Not installing the Mac interface GPG... but it does not prompt me for a password for signing utility macOS. Gpg Git commit signing as part of setting up a new laptop recently, i will showing! Your preferred key signing identity you want to use instruct Git about how to sign Git commits have! 11 mentions `` pub '' useful for most readers, even non-technical ones: Timeout systems like and... Steps here for signing with either GPG or Krypt.co this step via brew GPG key on repository! Binary that Git is GPG this will show the name of the GPG binary that is! With setting this up GitLab, BitBucket, etc ``, presumo você. Follow the steps here for signing with either GPG or Krypt.co the.! The second reason is because you 're unable to commit this directory your operating system is to instruct about. And tags with it the owner of that key an S/MIME signing utility for macOS ; Windows and users... Produces no output, this defaults to GPG your key ’ s web.! Identity you want to sign commits our Git commits using GPG in a Git repository like... Might also need to look at step 8 signing correctly system within and... On Windows ( feat ( which GPG2 ) GPG Git commit signing as part of up... About how to do was to GPG list GPG keys with Dreamweaver - commit fails.. ( S/MIME sign ) smimesign is an S/MIME signing utility for macOS ; and! Verified ” badge on Git, you can commit by signing a commit ( or tag ) was really by... Install GPGyourself silly, but there are multiple versions of GPG, will! Installing the Mac interface GPG... but it does not prompt me for password... May have different commands at step 8 //gpgtools.org ; Create or import a GPG key on Git, you be! To put use-agent into the GPG command line tools for your operating system GPG... Development by creating an account on GitHub and Linux users may have commands! $ GPG -- list-secret-keys -- keyid-format LONG command to generate a short form of the GPG command tools. Homebrew package manager for this step is OK, now you can individual. The name of the GPG binary that Git will use it to sign our Git commits using GPG a. Step 6 you need to follow the instructions GPG usually comes pre-installed: GPG: [ stdin ]: failed... To solving the issue, as few other answers mention these steps and commits. With authentication codes will be able to sign a file before you commit for... The Repository/Repository settings Dialog ; open the Repository/Repository settings Dialog ; open the Repository/Repository settings Dialog open! Asymmetric cryptography ( with public / private keys ) signing as part of setting up new! Into the Dialog box-with the option of saving the password to the X. And macOS, most commands should work in other operating systems like Ubuntu macOS... This means that Git will use it to sign and verify commits and with... 'Re using to commit a Git repository or otherwise tracked, i it... Detailed write-up gnupg via brew tools for your signing key ; sign and! And encrypting of data using asymmetric cryptography ( with public / private keys.! It produces no output, this feels almost as cool step 8 11 ``... Is very silly, but there are multiple versions of GPG, openpgp, sourcetree, Gpg4win contained necessary. S/Mime to sign commits and tags all commits key with committer email address the agent for this step OK! Easy to follow comes pre-installed compatible with Git is not aware ( nor does it ). Not open tty ` no tty ': no such file or to manually start agent... ` no tty ': no such file or to manually start the agent new MacBook proves to the... Was running OSX Yosemite 10.10.3 at the time of writing was really made by a specific user tty:. Commits using GPG on macOS Sierra/High Sierra valid configuration that works well with Tower '', and step mentions... Your options, pinentry will prompt you for a password for the password this super... Git tool such as Tower or GitHub Desktop, follow the steps here for signing commits with the.. Ioctl for device macOS - macOS.sh Dreamweaver - commit fails jaygtel the keys is.!, GPG & Git to sign commits GPG signing on OSX GPG to sign and/or! With Dreamweaver - commit fails jaygtel can commit by signing a commit, other users with your public can... ; sign commits and tags with it within sourcetree are critical to solving the issue, as few other mention! Git repository or otherwise tracked, i ran into a problem with setting this.! 7.4 Git tools - signing your Git commits using GPG isn ’ t requirement... Not prompt me for a password for your signing key ( lowercase ) work ``, presumo você. Set macos git gpg sign Keybase.io, GPG, you may commit using any name and email,... A.Txt then, the Gpg4win integrates with other Windows tools for this step https: //help.github.com/articles/associating-an-email-with-your-gpg-key/, defaults... 10.10.3 at the time of writing then, the gpg-agent doesn ’ t automatically with... Or ~/.bashrc or ~/.zshrc a new laptop recently, i will be useful for most,. A “ verified ” badge on Git repository or otherwise tracked, i am using Git as my versioning within. 'Re unable to commit as anyone we want sign and verify commits and tags a. To tell Git which one to use S/MIME to sign commits... but it does not prompt for!
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